A1c - see hemoglobin A1c.
Average Glucose (ADAG) Study - study conducted to define
the mathematical relationship between HbA1c and average blood glucose
adult-onset diabetes - see type 2 diabetes.
albumin - protein found in blood plasma and urine.
action times - length
of time a type of insulin takes to begin acting and how long its effect
lasts. See duration, onset and peak time.
amputate - to surgically cut off all or part of a limb.
insulin - made from the ground-up pancreases of pigs and
assay - analysis to
determine the presence and quantity of a substance.
autonomic neuropathy - damage to nerves that
control automatic processes, such as heart rate or digestion.
biosynthetic insulin - man-made insulin.
blood glucose - sugar made by the body
from food. It is absorbed into the body's cells with the help of
blood glucose meter - small machine which
estimates the level of glucose in a blood sample.
blood glucose testing - means of
measuring the level of glucose in blood. Home blood glucose testing is
done by pricking ones finger with a lancet, putting a drop of blood on a test strip and inserting
the strip in a blood glucose meter for a reading.
blood pressure - force of blood within arteries.
blood sugar - see blood glucose.
- extra insulin taken to cover an expected rise in blood glucose.
borderline diabetes -
see impaired glucose tolerance.
brittle diabetes - when ones blood glucose level
is prone to shift quickly from high to low and vice versa.
bunion - bump on the first joint of the
big toe. Caused by inflammation of a sac of fluid under the skin.
callus - hardened area of skin, most often on the foot.
calorie - measure that expresses the
energy value of food.
carbohydrate - type of food.
Mainly starches and sugars derived from plants.
cardiologist - physician specializing
in the heart and circulatory system.
cataract - eye abnormality characterized
by opacity of the lens.
certified diabetes educator (CDE) -
health professional who teaches diabetics how to manage their disease.
Charcot foot - destruction of the joints and soft tissue of the
cholesterol - substance made by the liver that is an essential part
of body functioning. Also comes from animal foods. Having too much cholesterol
can lead to atherosclerosis.
prolonged unconsciousness with a lack of response to stimuli.
corn - thickening of the skin on feet or hands.
- amino acid constituent of the muscles. Used to store energy for
formed by the metabolism of creatine and normally excreted in the urine as a
waste. The rate which it is cleared by the kidneys is a measure of renal
dawn phenomenon - sudden increase in blood
glucose levels in the early morning.
(Diabetes Control and Complications Trial) - major clinical
study conducted from 1983-1993. Demonstrated that keeping blood
glucose levels as close to normal as possible slows the onset and
progression of the eye, kidney, and nerve damage caused by diabetes.
- state of emotional dejection and withdrawal not warranted by
diabetes insipidus - type of diabetes unrelated to diabetes mellitus.
diabetes mellitus - disorder that interferes
with the bodily process that converts food into energy. It is
characterized by poor production or utilization of insulin and results in
excessive amounts of glucose in the blood.
diabetic ketoacidosis - dangerous condition resulting from hyperglycemia, dehydration, and
diabetic osteopathy - loss of foot bone.
- retina damage stemming from the growth of very small blood vessels.
dialysis - artificially providing the
functions of the kidney through the use of a machine.
diet plan - see meal plan.
dietitian - nutrition expert who helps people with special health needs plan
what they eat.
diuretic - drug that increases the amount of urine
- length of time in which insulin continues to lower blood glucose.
eAG (estimated Average Glucose) -
mathematical formula derived from the ADAG study that expresses HbA1c levels
in the same units as those used on home glucose meters (e.g., mg/dl).
edema - fluid build-up in body tissue.
gland - organ such as the thyroid, adrenal and pituitary glands,
that secretes substances into the body.
endocrinologist - physician specializing
in the endocrine system.
end-stage renal disease (ESRD) - final phase of
kidney disease. Usually requires dialysis or kidney transplantation.
erectile dysfunction - inability achieve or maintain an erection
of the penis. Common in diabetic men due to nerve damage.
exchange lists - food groupings
constructed to help people on special diets. One can substitute a food serving in one group for another in the same
fasting blood glucose test -
measurement of blood glucose at a time when food consumption does not affect
glucose level. Usually done in the morning before one has first eaten.
fiber - food that passes through the digestive system without being digested.
food exchange -
see exchange lists.
foot problems - sores, bunions,
calluses, etc. Of special concern to diabetics due to diminished feeling in
fractional urine - urine collected
during a specified period of time, for example from breakfast to lunch.
gastroparesis - nerve damage that affects the stomach and intestines.
gestational diabetes - diabetes occurring in pregnant women who have not
previously been diagnosed with have diabetes. Usually disappears following delivery.
geocities chart -
informal name for DCCT based HbA1c conversion chart that appeared on our former geocities.com site. Same as
Chart no. 4
glaucoma - increased internal pressure
within the eye. Can cause vision impairment.
glomerular filtration rate (GFR) - measure of the
ability of the kidneys to filter blood.
glucagon - hormone that increases blood glucose. Often injected when a
diabetic has lost consciousness due to low blood glucose.
- see blood glucose.
glucose tolerance test - blood test to determine the presence of
glycated hemoglobin test - see
glycemic index - measure of the effect
that a food has on blood glucose.
HbA1c - see hemoglobin A1c.
- proportion of blood volume occupied by red blood cells.
hemoglobin - substance in the red blood cells that supplies oxygen to the cells of the body.
hemoglobin A1c - test that reveals the average amount of
glucose in the blood over the previous three months.
high blood glucose - see hyperglycemia.
high blood pressure - see hypertension.
home blood glucose monitoring - see
blood glucose testing.
honeymoon phase - temporary
cessation of high blood glucose that occurs in some newly diagnosed type 1
diabetics. Some insulin secretion resumes for a period of time, before
hormone - chemical released by one of the endocrine glands or
tissues. Hormones travel through the blood to various areas of the
body where they contribute to normal functioning.
human insulin - man-made insulin that is
very similar to the insulin produced within the body.
hyperglycemia - high blood glucose.
hypertension - blood circulates through the blood vessels with
abnormally higher force.
hypoglycemia - low blood sugar.
hypotension - blood circulates through the blood vessels
with abnormally lower force.
IFCC - International Federation of
Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine.
impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) - condition in which blood
glucose levels are higher than normal, but so high as to indicate diabetes.
incontinence - inability to restrain the discharge of urine or feces.
see erectile dysfunction.
injection - using a needle and syringe
to insert liquid into the body.
injection site rotation - rotating the areas where
one injects insulin in order to avoid causing lumps or dents.
injection sites - places on the body where
one can inject insulin in the easiest manner.
insulin - hormone produced in the pancreas that
regulates the metabolism of glucose.
insulin allergy - occurs when one has a bad reaction to taking insulin.
Skin often becomes itchy or red.
insulin dependent diabetes - see type 1 diabetes.
induced atrophy - small, harmless dents in the skin caused by injecting a needle in the same
insulin induced hypertrophy - small lumps under the skin
caused when a needle is injected in the same spot.
insulin mixture - short-acting insulin
together with intermediate or long-acting insulin.
insulin pen - injection device about the
size of a pen.
insulin pump - a device which releases a steady
flow of insulin. About the size of a beeper, it is often worn on a
insulin reaction - see hypoglycemia.
insulin receptor - area on a cell that allows
it to bind with insulin and take glucose from the blood.
insulin resistance - partial blocking insulin's effect.
insulin shock - severe condition when
ones blood glucose level drops too quickly.
jet injector - device that propels insulin through the skin.
juvenile diabetes - see type 1 diabetes.
ketoacidosis - see diabetic ketoacidosis.
ketone - chemical produced during ketosis. Can accumulate in the blood
due to inadequate insulin.
ketosis - metabolism of fat.
kidneys - two bean-shaped organs in the
abdominal cavity that form and excrete urine and regulate electrolytes.
lab test - analysis of a sample of
blood or urine for indication of one or more conditions.
lancet - fine, sharp-pointed blade or needle for pricking the skin.
late-onset diabetes - see type 2 diabetes.
log - means of recording and analyzing
blood glucose readings and other diabetes related information.
low blood glucose - see hypoglycemia.
macular edema - swelling of an area near the center of the retina.
meal plan - guide for controlling the
intake of calories, carbohydrates, proteins, fats, fiber, vitamins, etc.
metabolic syndrome - condition that
increases the risk of diabetes and heart disease. Occurs when three or
more of the following exist at the same time: excess fat around waist,
hypertension, abnormal cholesterol levels, resistance to insulin.
metabolism - the bodily process that
breaks down food, creates energy and created and produces wastes.
mg/dl - milligrams per deciliter.
mixed dose - combining two kinds of insulin in one
mmol/l - millimoles per liter.
millimoles per mole.
mood swing - alternation of ones
emotional state between euphoria and depression.
nephrologist - physician specializing in
nephropathy - diabetic kidney disease.
NGSP - National Glycohemoglobin
neuropathy - diabetic nerve damage.
neuropathy - diabetic nerve damage.
non-insulin-dependent diabetes - see type 2 diabetes.
noninvasive blood glucose monitoring -
method of measuring blood glucose levels without pricking the finger to obtain a blood sample.
NPH insulin - type of intermediate-acting insulin.
nutritionist - see dietitian.
obesity - condition of being very overweight.
- length of time it takes for insulin to reach the blood and begin
lowering blood glucose levels.
ophthalmologist - physician specializing in treatment of the eyes.
pancreas - abdominal gland that produces insulin.
peak time - time period when the effect
of insulin is at its maximum.
peripheral neuropathy - nerve damage most
often in the feet and legs.
peripheral vascular disease (PVD) - condition that
affects blood vessels, especially of the extremities.
physician specializing in foot problems.
point system - meal planning scheme that uses points to rate food.
protein - food source supplying
essential amino acids to the body. Found in foods such as meat, fish
and eggs as well as legumes and dairy products.
see Somogyi effect.
record keeping - see log.
regular insulin - a fast acting insulin.
renal - kidney related.
retina - center part of the back lining of the eye that senses light. It has many small blood vessels that are sometimes harmed when a person has had diabetes for a long time.
retinopathy - diabetic eye disease.
secondary diabetes - diabetes caused by another disease or
SMBG (self-monitoring of blood glucose) -
see blood glucose testing.
Somogyi effect - swing from a very low level of blood glucose to a high
one. Usually occurs after an untreated insulin reaction during the
night or early morning.
split dosing - dividing insulin dosage into two or more injections
over the course of a day.
response by the body to stimuli such as fear and pain.
sugar - sweet tasting carbohydrate such
as fructose, glucose, lactose, and sucrose.
syringe - a small tubular device
fitted a rubber bulb. Used for drawing in and ejecting fluid.
test strip - a small strip used in
conjunction with a meter to test blood glucose levels.
type 1 diabetes - condition marked by high blood glucose levels
and due to a complete lack of insulin production in the
pancreas. Occurs most often in juveniles, but can develop in
type 2 diabetes - condition characterized by high blood glucose
levels and due to either a lack of insulin or an inability to use insulin
efficiently. Occurs most often in adults but can develop in juveniles.
ulcer - deep sore or a break in the
Prospective Diabetes Study) - 20
year study (1977-1997) of patients with newly diagnosed type 2
diabetes. Showed that complications of type 2 diabetes could be
reduced by improving blood glucose and/or blood pressure control.
unconsciousness - absence of awareness
unit of insulin - basic measure of insulin.
Most often expressed as U-100 which means 100 units of insulin per milliliter (ml) of liquid.
unstable diabetes - see brittle diabetes.
urine testing - checking urine for ketones.
urologist - physician specializing in the urinary tract.
Information Clearinghouse. "Diabetes
Dictionary." US National
Institutes of Health Publication No. 07–3016, October 2006.
Page created September 8, 2009
and last updated August 5, 2011